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Downs syndrom is an illness that commonly affects an individuals ability to learn at the same rate as others, along with sometimes causing physical disabilities. Individuals with downs syndrome can live a very happy and product lifestyle, but they do need to be monitored closely for any potential health complications that could arise at anytime.Diagnosing downs syndrom can occur before a child is even born. With the help of certain tests used to screen for various compli...

Diagnosing & Treating Downs Syndrome

Diagnosing & Treating Downs SyndromeDowns syndrom is an illness that commonly affects an individuals ability to learn at the same rate as others, along with sometimes causing physical disabilities. Individuals with downs syndrome can live a very happy and product lifestyle, but they do need to be monitored closely for any potential health complications that could arise at anytime.Diagnosing downs syndrom can occur before a child is even born. With the help of certain tests used to screen for various complications during pregnancy, physicians are often able to tell an expectant woman whether or not her child has an increased chance of having "downs syndrome" . Even with the best screening, however, there is always the possibility of a false positive reading.There is no one specific cause of the illness other than the fact that it occurs due to an extra copy of genetic material. Often occurring spontaneously, there are currently no known preventative measures that can be taken to guard against the development of downs syndrome. There are, however, some factors that may increase its probability, including increased maternal age.Downs syndrome is believed to cause various other medical conditions, which means treatment is often sought for heart defects, muscular and/or skeletal abnormalities, respiratory problems, the development of sleep apnea, digestive defects, problems with the thyroid, an increased likelihood of developing leukemia, Alzheimers and eye problems. This does not mean that every individual with downs syndrome will develop these illnesses, but they may be more susceptible than others.Just like any other child, education is an important part of life. Individuals who suffer from downs syndrome may or may not have a difficult time learning at the same level as their peers. In fact, many downs syndrome patients can be quite successful in school, but it is very important to evaluate each individual separately. If a downs syndrome child does begin to show learning problems, he/she may benefit from the use of a tutor or extra help from family members to make sure that they are getting personal attention to their questions.The information in this article is intended for informational purposes only. It should not be considered as, or used in place of, medical advice or professional recommendations for the cause, diagnosis or treatment of downs syndrome. If necessary, individuals should consult a medical doctor for information regarding the likelihood of a child developing downs syndrome, a proper diagnosis and/or course of treatment.

Several Types Of Obesity Surgery Available

Several Types Of Obesity Surgery Available

There are several types of obesity surgery available to those wishing to undergo the procedure. All of which have some level of permanence, meaning that you wont be able to fully reverse the obesity surgery once you go through with it.The most commonly known form of obesity surgery is gastric bypass, also known as stomach stapling. This procedure involves removing a large portion of the stomach from itself via a stapling device. The remains of the stomach pouch are attached to a portion of the lower intestine.Another well known procedure is the lap band. This is a less invasive form. The doctor places a ring with an inflatable section around the upper portion of the stomach. The ring has a tube attached to it that ends with a port that the doctor can easily access to inflate the ring and gradually reduce the stomachs capacity.Biliopancreatic Diversion, Duodenal Switch is a more involved surgery which consists of removing two thirds of the stomach and attaching the end of the stomach to a lower portion of the small intestine. The part of the intestine which was bypassed is still attached to the duodenum and its end attached to the small intestine where food is now routed to carry digestive juices to the area.The Long Limb Gastric Bypass is similar to the above except that doctors will attach the portion of small intestine containing digestive juices further down in the intestinal tract so that the food and digestive juices have even less time to mix.There is a form of Gastric Bypass known as the Fobi modification. A normal gastric bypass procedure is modified by the placement of a firm ring of material around the new stomach pouch.Other types of obesity surgery are vertical banded arthroplasty (rarely used anymore), Jejuno-Ileal Bypass, and Gastric Pacing.

I am Porphyrias

I am Porphyrias

I, Hepatic Porphyrias, primarily affect the nervous system, which can result in: abdominal pain, vomiting, acute neuropathy, seizures, and mental disturbances that include: hallucinations, depression, anxiety, and paranoia. Often times I can be involved in Cardiac arrhythmias and tachycardia as the autonomic nervous system is affected by my presence in the body. Severe pain is most times present, and in some more rare cases, can be acute and chronic in nature. One of my favorites is that I can often times bring about constipation, because of my huge presence in the nervous system of the gut.The erythropoietic porphyrias primarily affect the skin, which can cause photosensitivity, blisters, itching, and swelling, and increased hair growth on areas such as the forehead. In some of my forms, accumulated heme precursors excreted in the urine may change its color; For example after exposure to sunlight, I can change your urine to a dark reddish or dark brown color.I can be diagnosed through tests on your blood, urine, and stool. The initial test for my presence in your body is through the estimation of porphobilinogen. More extensive testing is done usually done after thsi initial porphobilinogen estimation with spectroscopy and other chemical analyses. I am a rare condition, so normally this testing involves sending samples of blood, stool and urine to a reference laboratory. If the diagnosic suspicion is high, often times, empirical treatment is required.If diagnosed with me, a high-carbohydrate diet is most commonly recommended. If I have reached you in a sever fashion, a glucose 10% infusion is commenced, which can in most cases help in recovery. If it is drugs that have caused the attack, is is always essential and to my dismay, to discontinue their use. I recommend that you take a look, and quickly, into visiting your local doctor or physician if you suspect that you have been infected with me. Once properly diagnosed they will be able to point you in the right direction for how you will be able to cope with my presence.

Things You Should Know Before Taking Fluoxetine

Things You Should Know Before Taking Fluoxetine

Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an antidepressant drug used medically in the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and panic disorder.Fluoxetine is also used to treat many other conditions, such as ADHD. It is sold under the brand names Prozac, Symbyax, Sarafem, FLUX, Fontex, Foxetin, Ladose, Fluctin, Prodep, Fludac, Oxetin and Lovan. Fluoxetine was derived from diphenhydramine, an antihistamine found to inhibit reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin.Compared to other popular selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), fluoxetine has a strong energizing effect. This makes fluoxetine highly effective in treatment of clinical depression cases where symptoms like depressed mood and lack of energy prevail. Although stimulating, it is also approved for a variety of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder.Prozac was approved by the FDA on December 29, 1987 and introduced in the US at the beginning of 1988. The drug became very popular, with millions around the world having taken the medication. In the fall of 2001, Eli Lilly lost a patent dispute with Barr Laboratories and now fluoxetine hydrochloride is manufactured by many companies. Prozac's popularity and selling success has been aided greatly by Lilly's extensive marketing campaign for the drug, considered one of the most successful in the history of American pharmaceuticals.Fluoxetine hydrochloride is approved in the United States to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and panic disorder. In the United Kingdom, it is approved to treat depression with or without anxiety, bulimia nervosa, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.In December 2003 the FDA approved Symbyax to treat bipolar depression. Symbyax is a combination of fluoxetine and olanzapine. (However, the pure form of fluoxetine can cause mania, mixed-states, rapid cycling and psychosis in bipolar patients, particularly if the patient is not also taking a mood stabilizer.)Common adverse effects include anxiety, which is possibly associated with an interaction of fluoxetine with the pineal gland, in addition to restlessness and insomnia. Weight loss, trembling, weakness, skin rash, anorgasmia, itching, and a decrease in sexual drive, have also been reported. Finally it has been reported to cause subsequent weight gain.Like other SSRIs, an overdose of fluoxetine or combining it with other antidepressants can lead to serotonin syndrome.Fluoxetine is eliminated very slowly by the body. The half-life of fluoxetine after a single dose is two days and, after multiple dosing, four days. The liver then metabolizes fluoxetine into norfluoxetine, a desmethyl metabolite, which is also a serotonin reuptake inhibitor; norfluoxetine has an even longer half-life, i.e. 8.6 and 9.3 days for single and repeated dosage respectively. These long half-lives may be helpful in those patients with compliance issues, but fluoxetine is most effective when taken daily. Other SSRIs have, by comparison, a very short half-life.Some professionals feel that it is fluoxetine's long half-life that gives it much of its therapeutic utility, however this has never been proven under rigorous scientific study. Nevertheless, its long half life is also relevant because suddenly discontinuing SSRIs is known to produce both somatic and psychological withdrawal symptoms, a phenomenon known as "SSRI discontinuation syndrome". It is generally accepted that fluoxetines withdrawal symptoms are much smoother than with other SSRIs, as the substance takes several days to completely leave the system. Fluoxetine is a potent CYP2D6 inhibitor, which can decrease metabolism of other medications.DisclaimerThe information presented here should not be interpreted as medical advice. Please consult with your physician before taking this or any other drug. Permission is granted to reprint this article as long as no changes are made, and the entire resource box is included.

Arthritis, Gout Rich Mans Knee Pain

There are many causes of knee pain, such as overuse, obesity, arthritis or injury. However, there are two main causes of "knee pain" , they are arthritis and gout. If you are one of the millions of Americans suffering with knee pain or arthritis pain in the knee you may benefit from the many studies done on this subject. The three basic types of arthritis that may cause hip and knee pain: osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis (most commonly rheumatoid arthritis), and traumatic arthritis.Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus can cause knee pain. In children, chronic knee pain may be the first sign of rheumatoid arthritis or simply "growing pains". Knee pain may result from trauma, overuse, internal derangement, osteoarthritis, or inflammatory arthritis. The differential diagnoses include inflammatory arthritis, bursitis or tendonitis, anterior knee pain and internal derangement.Gout the another main reason for knee pains. Gout is a condition that causes sudden and severe attacks of pain, redness and swelling of joints. Gout is a condition has been well known for many centuries. Most often it affects a single joint in one episode, often the big toe. About 9 out of 10 affected individuals affected by gout are men over the age of 40. The peak age of attacks is 75 years, but it can occur in young individuals on rare occasions. Over one millions Americans have a gout attack each year.Gout is due to accumulations of uric acid within the fluid of your joints. Uric acid is a waste product of many foods that we eat. In order to properly digest food, and rid our body of waste, we produce substances such as uric acid to transport waste material. Ultimately, uric acid is excreted via the kidneys in urine. However, when the transportation of uric acid is impaired, and uric acid accumulates in the blood stream, the condition called gout may result. The impairment of uric acid excretion is often due to a hereditary problem, but can also have other causes.When the uric acid level becomes too high for an individual, painful attacks of gouty arthritis, or joint pain, can result. Other symptoms can include kidney stones, and, ultimately, kidney failure. It is interesting to note that the relationship between uric acid levels in the blood stream and gout is unclear. Some individuals with gout have normal or near normal blood levels of uric acid; other individuals have very high blood levels of uric acid with no symptoms of gout. It appears to be entirely dependent on the individual.Some individuals have a hereditary condition making them more susceptible to gout; other risk factors also contribute to having a gouty attack. Among these are obesity and sudden weight gain, abnormal kidney function, excessive intake of alcohol (especially "binge" drinking), and certain types of cancer. Some medications, such as thiazide diuretics to control blood pressure, and foods that are rich in purines can lead to attacks. Purine-rich foods include organ meats (e.g. liver, kidney), herring, anchovies, and to an extent, all meat products.

Common Computer Workstation Mistakes and Solutions for Pain Relief Part 2

Copyright 2006 Wendy YoungDo you spend long hours at your computer? If you are experiencing pain in your upper limbs (hand, wrist, neck, back or shouler) check out your computer workstation design. Following are four computer workstation design challenges and solutions.Monitor Positioned Incorrect With Respect to Overhead Light and Window:If the computer user is facing the window (or if the outside light is shining directly on the monitor) office glare may be a factor. If long fluorescent light bulbs overhead are perpendicular to the direction you are facing it can reflect in your eyes. The eyes constantly refocus throughout the day and the added glare from these two light sources can increase the risk of eyestrain.Solution: If you have long fluorescent light bulbs overhead try to face in the same direction as the length of the bulbs so the light will reflect off the side of your body instead of in your eyes. Place your monitor perpendicular to the window so the outside light will reflect off the side of your body. Due to the design of your office you may not be able to place your monitor correctly for each of these lighting sources. You may try closing or facing the blinds upwards to reduce the outside light.Desk Is Too Narrow for Monitor and KeyboardIf the desk is too narrow the monitor will be too close to the eyes in most instances. The uncomfortable feeling in the eyes will be immediately obvious and this will cause the computer user to move back to view the monitor comfortably. This will cause a reach to the keyboard and mouse with a great potential of creating discomfort in the shoulders.Solution: The simple solution is to replace your large monitor with a flat panel. You will love it. Flat panels have really come down in price. Or purchase a desk that is deep enough to hold the monitor and keyboard AND allow you to work close to the keyboard without reaching and a comfortable distance from the monitor. The flat panel is probably the most economical and will create more peaceful aesthetics.Keyboard and Mouse Too High Or Low:This can create improper typing and mousing posture - either raising the shoulders creating tensed muscles or tilting neck down and creating bent wrists. Usually the keyboard is too high due to non-adjustable desks at standard manufacturing heights of 29".Solution: Raise or lower the work surface so that the shoulders are in a relaxed position. This can be done with an articulating arm/tray or an adjustable height desk. When the elbows are bent they should be slightly higher than the top of the keys on your keyboard. Keep wrists straight when typing and do not rest on pads while typing.Mouse at a Different Level than Keyboard:This can create an awkward reach to the mouse. The arms should be close to the body when mousing with the elbows bent 90 - 120 degrees. Do not straighten your arm when mousing because it can cause fatigue and discomfort to the shoulder blade area.Solution: Place the mouse directly next to the keyboard preferably with no break between the keyboard and mouse. Be sure that your shoulders are in a relaxed position.

Summary

Downs syndrom is an illness that commonly affects an individuals ability to learn at the same rate as others, along with sometimes causing physical disabilities. Individuals with downs syndrome can live a very happy and product lifestyle, but they do need to be monitored closely for any potential health complications that could arise at anytime.Diagnosing downs syndrom can occur before a child is even born. With the help of certain tests used to screen for various compli...